Gordon College style is to simplify as much as possible. We minimize hyphenation and commas, and use a pared-down style for bulleted lists. These contribute to a direct, easy to read style.
Consult the Chicago Manual of Style about issues not addressed here.
The ampersand symbol ( & ) is an informal way to express and.
Don't use it in College communications except as part of a recognized title.
Barnes & Noble Ernst & Young Inviting juniors and seniors!
In print communications, use apostrophes that curve to the left. If your document displays a straight apostrophe, use a computer shortcut to create a single "smart quote" that curves.
curved apostrophe ’ straight apostrophe '
On the College website, straight apostrophes are acceptable, but curled versions can be found in the special characters palette ( ).
Use an apostrophe to
Don't use apostrophes in the plural forms of nouns. This applies to numbers and acronyms, too.
rock ’n’ roll Class of '86 Ken Umenhofer '53B the 1920s ATMs M&Ms
Robinson Jeffers’s poem "Hurt Hawks" Robinson Jeffers’ poem "Hurt Hawks"
Create a numbered list when it is important to specify the order of steps in a process, or some other numerical sequence.
Otherwise, use bullets.
Use auto-format buttons on the formatting toolbar in Microsoft Word to format bulleted or numbered lists. Indentation is automatic.
College style is the same for both:
College style is to omit serial commas. (In a series of three or more words or phrases, when a conjunction such as and or or joins the last two elements, don't use a comma before the conjunction unless it is essential for clarity.)
It may take professional coaching to design an activity plan that buils muscular strength, balance, flexibility and aerobic fitness.
When a sentence starts with a prepositional phrase of 5 or more words, place a comma after that phrase.
Don't use a comma after introductory phrases of 4 or fewer words.
SPECIAL CASE: Sometimes a comma is used after fewer than 5 words, for clarity or to insert an appropriate pause.
In December 2014 during finals week, the team assembled for its final match.
On a December afternoon the team assembled for its final match.
On a cool, cool afternoon, the team assembled for its final match.
When two or more adjectives precede a noun, use the and test. If you can insert and between the words, use a comma; otherwise, don't.
No comma is necessary between the last adjective and the noun.
The tall and wide structure => The tall, wide structure
A former and secret agent => A former secret agent
Do not use commas between
Martin Luther King Jr. Priscilla Nelson Ed.D. Miguel Martinez M.D. Work Inc.
Use the American style: at the end of a quotation, place the comma before the ending quotation mark.
"It is for freedom that Christ has set us free," declared St. Paul (Gal 5:1).
Dashes come in three sizes.
A hyphen is the shortest. Its only function is to link compound words.
Type it on the keyboard (lowercase character on key above the letter P).
An en dash belongs within ranges of time, numbers, pages, years, or other items.
Sept. 2–5 4:15–5:45 p.m. 2015–2016
Use an em dash
If you return to your original thought after an interjection, use a pair of em dashes around the interjection.
Chapel, November 16, 10:25 a.m.—Tom Haugen speaking on Galatians 5:16–25
With this move—bringing family books and items back to their origins—I was, in some sense, going backward.
Type ellipsis points manually, with spaces around and between them, so they will be evenly spaced.
Use three ellipsis points
"What I learned as a student . . . was to take information and opinions and draw my own conclusions," Gaston said.
In scholarly writing, use four ellipsis points when the material before the ellipsis is from one sentence, but the material that follows is from another. First type a period (or question mark or exclamation mark) immediately after the word before the ellipsis; then type three spaced ellipsis points.
College communications rarely require the formal 4-point ellipsis. . . . Use of it is more common in formal academic writing that must cite sources extremely precisely.
Use these sparingly in College communications. Never use them in email subject lines.
Consult the "Gordon Dictionary" to learn which frequently-used words to hyphenate in College communlications.
For words not on that list, use these rules of thumb.
part-time pre-Enlightenment self-conscious all-knowing
College-sponsored events three-eighths thirty-fourth
As a rule, don't hyphenate words that begin with other prefixes, including non, semi, over, under, post, anti, bi, co, micro and counter.
Be alert for exceptions. If omitting a hyphen creates a word that exists with another meaning, use the hyphen.
nonemergency semifinal overburdened underutilized postdated
antibacterial biennial microprocessor counterculture co-op housing
In capitalized headings, capitalize the first letter of both parts of a hyphenated word.
When similar compound words appear together in a series, type out the entire last word, but just the prefix and hyphen for those that precede it.
18th- and 19th-century chamber music 17-, 18- and 19-year-olds
Use straight single and double quotation marks for feet and inches. 8'4"
Use curvy “smart quotes” for quotation marks and apostrophes. “ ” ‘ ’
How to create “smart quotes” >>
Use the American style for quotation marks:
Type one space
A single space between sentences is now the industry standard. However, some of us find it hard to break the habit of typing two.
The find/replace function makes it easy to eliminate extra spaces from your document.
Do not follow URLs with periods or other end punctuation.
Position URLs on a single line when possible. If it is essential to split a URL between two lines, do so after a slash that occurs in the URL; don't add a dash or any other punctuation that is not part of the URL itself.
Students who wish to take the train to Boston can find the schedule at http://www.mbta.com/schedules_and_maps/rail/lines/?route=NBRYROCK
On the web, hyperlink words or phrases instead of writing out the full URL. See Writing and formatting for the web for more information.
Students who wish to take the train may view the online Boston train schedule.